Wear characteristics of current aesthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM materials: Two-body wear, gloss retention, roughness and Martens hardness 

Objectives: This study determined the two-body wear and toothbrushing wear parameters, including gloss and roughness measurements and additionally Martens hardness, of nine aesthetic CAD/CAM materials, one direct resin-based nanocomposite plus that of human enamel as a control group.

Materials and methods: Two-body wear was investigated in a computer-controlled chewing simulator (1.2 million loadings, 49 N at 1.7 Hz; 3000 thermocycles 5/50 1C). Each of the 11 groups consisted of 12 specimens and 12 enamel antagonists. Quantitative analysis of wear was carried out with a 3D-surface analyser. Gloss and roughness measurements were evaluated using a glossmeter and an inductive surface profilometer before and after abrasive toothbrushing of machine-polished specimens. Additionally Martens hardness was measured. Statistically significant differences were calculated with one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance).

Results: Statistically significant differences were found for two-body wear, gloss, surface roughness and hardness. Zirconium dioxide ceramics showed no material wear and low wear of the enamel antagonist. Two-body wear of CAD/CAM-silicate and -lithium disilicate ceramics, -hybrid ceramics and -nanocomposite as well as direct nanocomposite did not differ significantly from that of human enamel. Temporary polymers showed significantly higher material wear than permanent materials. Abrasive toothbrushing significantly reduced gloss and increased roughness of all materials except zirconium dioxide ceramics. Gloss retention was highest with zirconium dioxide ceramics, silicate ceramics, hybrid ceramics and nanocomposites. Temporary polymers showed least gloss retention. Martens hardness differed significantly among ceramics, between ceramics and composites, and between resin composites and acrylic block materials as well.

Conclusions: All permanent aesthetic CAD/CAM block materials tested behave similarly or better with respect to two-body wear and toothbrushing wear than human enamel, which is not true for temporary polymer CAD/CAM block materials. Ceramics show the best gloss retention compared to hybrid ceramics, composites and acrylic polymers.

W.H. Mörmann, B.Stawarczyk, A. Ender et al.

Journal of  the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials 20 (2013) 113–125